(Written by Devika Gupta under Dr. Anu Goel)
Published on http://www.merinews.com/article/the-psychology-of-superstition/15880520.shtml
Some of us have a ‘lucky shirt’ or a ‘lucky rock’ that we like to wear or carry on important occasions, while others prefer to indulge in rituals like eating sweetened curd before embarking on a journey. Apart from these, ideas that we get bad luck by walking under a ladder or that we jinx things by talking about them prematurely – are all examples of superstitions.
Superstition can be defined as a belief or practice resulting from ignorance, fear of the unknown, trust in magic or chance, or a false conception of causation, according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary. In psychological terms, this can be understood as behaviour, which itself may be rational or irrational, which that is based on a belief that has no basis in reality.
The greatest emotional benefit that arises out of superstitious thinking or behaviour is a sense of security and confidence. According to Foxman, there is a positive placebo effect – “There is a tremendous amount of power in belief,” he says. He believes that superstition may actually give performance a boost, and hence becomes a key factor in determining an outcome. That being said, superstitions can also play a negative role in our lives, especially when combined with bad habits such as gambling. Phobic superstitions are responsible for causing a lot of anxiety and interfering with our lives says Vyse. For example, people who are afraid of Friday the 13th might change travel arrangements or skip an appointment because of unnecessary anxiety.
Generally speaking, women are more superstitious than men, says Vyse. It has also been found that women experience more anxiety, or at least, more women than men seek help for anxiety problems. Although personality variables are not a strong factor in developing superstition, there is some evidence that suggests that people who are more anxious on average are slightly more likely to be superstitious than others.
At the same time, studies have found that Intelligence has no relation to superstitious behaviour.